Hebrew Poetry in the Book of Mormon: Part I
by Angela M. Crowell

We have in the Book of Mormon an ancient Semitic treasure--a masterpiece of literary style that has yet to reach its zenith in appreciation and acclaim. We are now unraveling the mystery of its language structure and are able to unveil it as an impressive example of Hebraic artistry. Its future contribution to Biblical research will yet reveal the genius of its elegant poetic structures.

There are two main purposes to this article: 1) to present illustrations of various types of Hebrew poetry in the Book of Mormon that have been identified by Biblical scholars and; 2) to show that current Biblical research continues to confirm the validity of the Hebraic language structure of the Book of Mormon. Knowledge of the poetic structure of the Book of Mormon calls attention to the great beauty of its verse and aids our understanding of its message.

In The Forms of Hebrew Poetry, author George Buchanan Gray points out that in the past, failure to understand the structure of Hebrew poetry has "frequently led to misinterpretation of Scripture" (1972:3). Therefore, an understanding of the forms of Hebrew poetry becomes a valuable, if not necessary, means to correct interpretation.

David Noel Freedman explains in his book Pottery, Poetry and Prophecy (1980) that in the ancient Near East, poetry was the traditional means of expressing and transmitting religious experience.

He relates that this is not readily discernible in the Bible for various reasons: 1) the Old Testament as a work of prose dominated the approach to all Biblical literature; 2) much of the rest of the Bible, though actually poetic in character, was copied as prose; and 3) because of the treatment of the Bible as sacred literature and the concern to fix the exact wording of the text to establish an authoritative interpretation, poetry was leveled out as prose.

While the "word of God is predominantly [written down in] the prose narrative ... the original medium was poetry ... a product of the divine spirit" (1980:1). Freedman reiterates that from the beginnings of prophecy in Israel at least until the exile, poetry was the central medium of prophecy. In subsequent centuries the revival of prophecy brought with it a revival of poetry. Other authors who agree with Freedman state, "It seems that the Spirit of God often used poetry as He lifted up the prophets to the highest of spiritual experiences" (Ridderbos and Wolf 1986:891).

The only other ancient Semitic languages with comparable bodies of poetic literature are Ugaritic and Akkadian. Ugaritic tablets discovered at Ras Shamra (an ancient city on the north Syrian coast) contain over 4,000 lines of verse dating to about 1400 B.C. The term Akkadian (Asyro-Babylonian) denotes the poetic literature of ancient Mesopotamia written 1000 B.C. to 800 B.C. It includes most of the forms of parallelism found in the Hebrew literature.

[I]t is only since the discovery of poetic texts in Ugaritic and Akkadian that certain techniques of poetry could be recognised [sic] in Hebrew. This knowledge is expanding: at the same time as these techniques are becoming better understood ...

Scholarship has pro translation from both Ugaritic and Akkadian is reliable and therefore poetic analysis is possible (Watson 1984:1-2).

Entire Old Testament books such as Psalms, Proverbs, Lamantations, Micah, Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah and others are entirely poetic. The greater portions of Isaiah, job, Joel, Amos, Hosea and Jeremiah are also poetry. In addition, Hebrew poetry has also been identified in the New Testament.

Before 1952, none of the early versions of the Bible were printed in poetic form. Since then modern versions have begun to utilize indented lines in order to clearly identify the poetic material.

Hebrew poetry, like Akkadian, Egyptian and Chinese poetry, has no rhyme. It has a rhyme of thought rather than of sound. Cyrus H. Gordon has observed that Biblical, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Mesopotamian, Anatolian and Egyptian poetry all exhibit a similar poetic structure (Gordon 1965). Similar poetic structure is also characteristic of Arabic literature.

Bishop Robert Lowth, an Oxford English professor, published his noted lectures on the sacred poetry of the Hebrews in Latin in 1753, and later they were published in English in 1815. He was the first to bring attention to the use of parallelism in Hebrew poetry and classify three different types. Parallelism occurs when two or more lines correspond to each other in both meaning and structure. Lowth's work has been improved upon by various Biblical scholars and other types have been added and reclassified. Significantly, Bishop Lowth also pointed out that "parallelism can be retained almost un-impaired in a translation" (Gray 1972:32).

This article will cite examples of some of the commonly accepted and clearly identified kinds of Hebrew poetry such as different types of parallelism and poetic devices. The study of Hebrew poetry is still an open field and various Hebrew scholars are continuing to research the subject. This will, no doubt, continue to bring light to our present understanding.

Frequently used word-pairs found in Hebrew poetry (e.g. day/night, gold/silver, Jacob/Israel) occur in parallel lines and belong to the same grammatical class (verb, noun, etc.). Biblical scholars have found more than 1,000 fixed word-pairs of synonymous words or phrases in Ugaritic poetry which were also used in Hebrew poetry. These word-pairs were handed down from one generation to another and were usually used in the same order. They also occurred in related languages such as Akkadian and Aramaic. Studies have shown 3,168 identified wordpairs in Isaiah and 1,474 in the book of Job (Watters 1976:154).

Synonymous Parallelism
This type of parallelism occurs when "the second line of a couplet [two line unit] repeats the thought of the first line in different words" (Huey and Corley 1983:182).

Old Testament
0 magnify the Lord with me,
    and let us exalt his name together.         Psalm 34:3
Book of Mormon
For his soul did rejoice,
    and his whole heart was filled.         1 Nephi 1:14

Antithetic Parallelism
This kind of parallelism occurs when the second line of a verse contrasts or opposes the first line.

Old Testament
For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous,
    but the way of the ungodly shall perish.         Psalm 1:6
Book of Mormon
Ye are swift to do iniquity,
    but slow to remember the Lord your God.        I Nephi 5:144

Number Parallelism
Stanley Gevirtz in Patterns in the Early Poetry of Israel explains number parallelism.

One-digit numbers had as their fixed parallels the next higher one-digit number (1 / 2, 2 / 3 ... ); two-digit numbers had as their fixed parallels the corresponding next higher two-figure unit [number] (20/30 ... 77/88).. Once the poet had selected a number to be used in parallelism, its correspondent [number] was already determined.

The same pattern followed for thousand/ten thousand which is a fixed pair with ten thousand being the next higher unit after "thousand" (Gevirtz 1963:22).

Old Testament
How should one chase a thousand, And two put ten thousand to flight?         Deuteronomy 32:30
Book of Mormon
... while ye are surrounded with thousands of those,
Yea, and tens of thousands...        Alma 27:41

Staircase or Climactic Parallelism
This type uses the repetition of one or more words and advances the thought in successive lines. The thought appears to climb step by step to the climax. It is used to open a speech, close a section, or act as a refrain in poetry. It can be expressed in two or more lines and can also assist in dividing a poem into stanzas (Gottwald 1962:833).

Old Testament Give unto the Lord,
    0 ye mighty,
Give unto the Lord
    glory and strength.
Give unto the Lord
    the glory due unto his name;
Worship the Lord
    in the beauty of holiness.         Psalms 29:1
Book of Mormon
Believe in God;
Believe that he is and that he created all things,
    both in heaven and in earth;
Believe that he hath all wisdom and all power,
    both in heaven and in earth;
Believe that man doth not comprehend all the things
    which the Lord can comprehend;
And again,
Believe that ye must repent of your sins and forsake
And humble yourselves before God and ask in sincerity
    of heart that he would forgive you;
And now, if you believe all these things,
    see that ye do them.         Mosiah 2:13-17

Alternating Parallelism
As the name suggests, this type occurs when the first and third lines and the second and fourth lines, etc. "correspond or balance" each other with an A/ B/ A/B pattern. This type of parallelism has been identified 64 times in Psalms, and 135 in the Prophets (Willis 1987:49, 71).

Old Testament
A   The Lord is my light and my salvation;
B  Whom shall I fear?
A'   The Lord is the strength of my life;
B'   Of whom shall I be afraid?       
Book of Mormon
A   And the gospel of Jesus Christ shall be declared
    among them;
B   Wherefore, they shall be restored unto the knowledge
    of their fathers,
A'   And also to the knowledge of Jesus Christ
B'   Which was had among their fathers.         2 Nephi 12:82

An extension of this pattern (A/B/C/A/B/C) is:

Old Testament
A   Open to me the gates of righteousness;
B   I will go into them, C  And I will praise the Lord; A'  This gate of the Lord; B'  Into which the righteous shall enter. C'   I will praise thee; for thou hast heard me         Psam 118:19-21
Book of Mormon
A   And he that shall breathe out wrath and strifes
    against the work of the Lord,
B   And against the covenant people of the Lord,
C   Which are the house of Israel, and shall say,
A'   We will destroy the work of the Lord,
B'   And the Lord will not remember his covenant
C'   Which he hath made unto the house of Israel         Mormon 4:26

Emblematic Parallelism
Simile. A simile is a comparison using the words "like" or "as." Similies are used in Hebrew poetry to open a section or stanza (usually a speech) or to end one. It can also function as a link between sections of a poem. They appear by themselves, paired, in triplet or in series of four or more.

Old Testament
And the daughter of Zion is left
    as a cottage in a vineyard,
    as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers,
    as a beseiged city.
        Isaiah 1:8
Book of Mormon
0 that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments;
Then had thy peace been as a river,
And thy righteousness as the waves of the sea;
Thy seed also had been as the sand;
The offspring of thy bowels like the gravel thereof
        1 Nephi 6:25-26

Metaphor In Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, E. W. Bullinger describes metaphor as:

A Declaration that one Thing is (or represents) another ... while the Simile gently states that one thing is like or resembles another, the Metaphor boldly and warmly declares that one thing IS the other" (1898:735).

Often in Hebrew literature a metaphor is spelled out in minute detail to drive home a particular message. Metaphors found in the Old Testament in Genesis 49 state that Judah is a lion, Zebulun a harbour, Dan a serpent, Naphtali a hind, Issachar a donkey, Benjamin a wolf and Joseph a fruitful bough (Watson 1984:270). (Also see Psalm 23:1: The Lord is my Shepherd-a representation of the Lord as shepherd.)

Book of Mormon
Yea, blessed is the name of my God who hath been
    mindful of this people,
Which are a branch of the tree of Israel,
And hath been lost from its body, in a strange land;
[i.e. the people are a representation of a branch of the tree of Israel]     Alma 14:126

Chiasmus (Inverted Parallelism)
A chiastic verse has a sequence of words in the first clause reversed in sequence in the second clause. Simple chiastic sentences have a word pattern of A/B/B/A (day, night, night, day) or A/B/C/B/A with a center point (C) emphasized. Longer structures cover paragraphs, chapters and books with the first line corresponding to the last line and the second last line, etc.

Old Testament
A   So he shall open,
B  and none shall shut;
B'   and he shall shut,
A'   And none shall open.
Book of Mormon
A   By the power of his word
B  man came upon the face of the earth;
B'   which earth was created
A'   By the power of his word.        Jacob 3:12

Chiasmus is found not only in lines in the Bible but also in paragraphs and entire books such as Jonah, Ruth, Matthew, Mark and John.

Chiasmus may function in several ways. Its structural lines can be used to open and close a stanza or poem, to link components of a poem and to indicate a midpoint of a poem (Watson 1984:205).

Lund's Seven Laws of Chiastic Structure
Nils Lund's research gives us seven laws of chiastic structure. These laws help us to see that a great deal of variety is possible in chiastic arrangement (Lund 942:40-41):

  1. The center is always the turning point. It may consist of one, or up to four lines.
  2. At the center there is often a change in thought and an antithetic (opposite) idea is introduced.
  3. Identical ideas occur in the extreme and at the center.
  4. Ideas occur at the center of one chiasm and recur in the extremes of a second chiasm which was constructed to match the first chiasm.
  5. Terms gravitate toward certain positions within a chiasm; for example, the divine names in Psalms or quotations in central position.
  6. Larger units are frequently introduced and concluded by frame-passages.
  7. There is frequently a mixture of chiastic and alternating lines within one grouping.

Alternating and Chiastic Lines
The combination of alternating and chiastic forms of parallelism are often found used together (Lund 1942:41). An artistic Book of Mormon example is First Nephi 1:29-32. Its subjects are:
     Red Sea

     Red Sea

First the chiastic order is given, then it shifts to alternating at the center and then resumes the chiastic order. This order can also be reversed.

Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon
John W. Welch, a professor of law at BYU and founder of the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), first identified chiasmus in the Book of Mormon in 1967. He has published numerous articles on this subject and has edited an important book, Chiasmus in Antiquity (1981), which contains an article he wrote on "Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon." Most important in the discovery of chiasmus is the explanation of the repetitious style of writing found in the Book of Mormon. It is used as a device through which the authors can focus our attention on the central ideas of their messages. This is done by placing the central ideas at the turning point of the chiasms.

Bullinger observed that chiasmus was "the most stately and dignified presentation of a subject; and is always used in the most solemn and important portions of the Scriptures" (1898:374). It was used to clearly show us proper interpretation.

Alma gives us an outstanding example of this in the intricate chiastic structure of his conversion to Jesus Christ in Alma 17:1-30 (Figure 1). The turning point in the center of the structure is at verse 15 which shows Jesus Christ as the turning point of his life. (The use of A and A' etc. are used to help the reader identify the chiastic structure.)

Initial Repetition
This device uses the repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of consecutive lines (Watson 1984:276).

Old Testament
They shall eat up thine harvest and thy bread,. . .
They shall eat up thy flocks and thine herds;
They shall eat up thy vines and thy fig trees;
[Repeated three times to emphasize the complete devouring of the land by the enemy].
Jeremiah 5:17

Book of Mormon
Cry unto him for mercy; ...
Cry unto him when ye are in your fields; ...
Cry unto him in your houses....
Cry unto him against the power of your enemies; ...
Cry unto him against the devil,. . .
Cry unto him over the crops ...
Cry over the flocks of your fields ...         Alma 16:218-220

End Repetition
The repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive lines is identified as end repetition (Watson 1984:276).

Old Testament
Who is the King of glory?
The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory.
Psalms 24:10 Masoretic Text
Book of Mormon
And in fine wo unto all they that die in their sins:
For they shall return to God. . .
    and remain in their sins.         2 Nephi 6:72

Immediate Repetition
This device uses a word or phrase and then repeats it immediately without a break. It is "used to convey a sense of urgency" in nearly all texts (Watson 1984:277).

Old Testament
Awake, awake, put on thy strength, 0 Zion;
Isaiah 52:1
Book of Mormon
0 remember, remember, my sons, the words ...
Helaman 2:71

Envelope Figure
The envelope figure is the repetition of the same phrase or sentence at the beginning and end of a stanza or poem.... the poem is framed between the repeated phrases (Watson 1984:282-283).

An example of this in the Old Testament is found in Psalms 146 through Psalms 150. Each Psalm begins and ends with the phrase, "Praise ye the Lord" (Watson 1984:284).

Book of Mormon
And the Spirit saith unto me again:
"Behold, the Lord hath delivered him into thy hands."
Yea, and I also knew that he had sought to take away
    mine own life,
Yea, and he would not hearken unto the commandments
    of the Lord,
And he also had taken away our property.
And it came to pass that the Spirit said
    unto me again: "Slay him!
For the Lord hath delivered him into thy hands."
1 Nephi 1:112-113

A variation of the envelope figure is the use of only a word or a common root as the repeated element. In this example the word "ungodly" is used in the first and last verses (Watson 1984:284).

Old Testament
Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the
    ungodly ...
For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous but the
   way of the ungodly shall perish.         Psalm 1:1, 6
Book of Mormon
Yea, and I also thought that they could not keep
    the commandments of the Lord, according to the law
    of Moses,
Save they should have the law.
And I also knew that the law was engraven upon the
    plates of brass ...
That I might obtain the records according to his
    commandments.         I Nephi 1:117-119

When the same word is repeated at the beginning and end of a sentence, it is called inclusio. "The figure is frequently hidden or lost in translation." When used, it emphasizes the importance of what has been said (Bullinger 1898:245). This technique is used frequently to mark the length of a poem or a section of a poem Schokel 1988:78). Some scholars extend their definition to include the repetition of phrases or sentences at the beginning and end of a composition, thus not distinguishing between envelope figure and inclusion.

Old Testament
In booths shall ye dwell seven days;
All that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths.
Leviticus 23:42 Masoretic Text
Book of Mormon
And my soul hungered,
And I kneeled down before my Maker,
And I cried unto him in mighty prayer and supplication
    for mine own soul;         Enos 1:5

Some poems contain repeated words which may be "a series of synonyms on a dominant theme" or the same word. "The main function of keywords is to express the principal theme [or main point] of a poem" and link verses and stanzas (Watson 1984:288).

Old Testament
The great day of the Lord is near,
It is near ...
A day of wrath,
A day of trouble and distress,
A day of wasteness and desolation,
A day of darkness and gloominess,
A day of clouds and thick darkness,
A day of the trumpet and alarm,
the day of the Lord's wrath; ...
Zephaniah 1:14-18
Book of Mormon
Now this was what Ammon desired, for he knew that
    King Lamoni was under the power of God. . . ;
He knew that the dark veil of unbelief being cast away
    from his mind,
And the light which did light up his mind, which was
        the light of the glory of God, which was a marvelous
    light of his goodness;
Yea, this light had infused such joy into his soul, the
    cloud of darkness having been dispelled,
And that the light of everlasting light was lit up in his
    soul ...         Alma 12:132-134

The Refrain
A refrain is a word or line of verse which is repeated more than once within a poem. Three variations of the refrain are illustrated below.

The Strict Refrain
The wording remains unchanged, no matter how many times it is repeated . In the following example, the refrain occurs at the end of each of the five verses (Watson 1984:295).

Old Testament
Yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the Lord.
Amos 4:6, 8-11

In the Book of Mormon example, the refrain "0 house of Israel" is repeated six times.

Book of Mormon
And then will I remember my covenant which I made
    unto my people,
    0 house of Israel,
And I will bring my gospel unto them;
And I will shew unto thee,
    0 house of Israel,
That the Gentiles shall not have power over you,
But I will remember my covenant unto you,
    0 house of Israel,
And ye shall come unto the knowledge of the fullness of
    my gospel ...
    0 house of Israel,
And I will not suffer my people ...
To go through among them ...
    0 house of Israel,
That they shall go through among them, and shall tread
    them down ...
    0 house of Israel
        3 Nephi 7:36-38, 40-41

The Variant Refrain
This occurs more frequently than the strict refrain and shows minor variations in the refrain.

In this Old Testament example, the refrain occurs three different times with changes each time (Watson 1984:295).

Old Testament
Turn us again, 0 God,
    and cause thy face to shine;
    and we shall be saved.
Turn us again, 0 God of hosts,
    and cause the face to shine;
    and we shall be saved.
Turn us again, 0 Lord God of hosts,
    cause thy face to shine;
    and we shall be saved.         Psalm 80:3,7,19

This Book of Mormon refrain is repeated three different ways in the three verses from Alma 14:92, 94,96.

we will praise his name for ever,
we have reason to praise him for ever,
we will praise our God for ever.

The Chorus
In this variation the chorus is repealed after every line. The Old Testament example in Psalm 136 repeats this phrase after all 26 verses (Watson 1984:296-297).

for his mercy endureth for ever.
In the Book of Mormon, the phrase in Third Nephi 4:28-38 is repeated in each verse for a total of 9 times.
and the inhabitants thereof.

Verb Gapping
Verb gapping is "the omission of a word in a second clause when it is identical to a word used in the first [clause]." It is one form of ellipsis (i.e. the omission of a word or words in a sentence) which is particularly frequent in poetry. One author, O'Connor, states that in Hebrew "verb gapping only occurs in poetry" (Watson 1984:48).

Old Testament (gapping of the verb "I know")
For I know your manifold transgressions
    and your mighty sins;         Amos 5:12
Book of Mormon
For behold, I say unto you, I know there is a God,
And also that Christ shall come.         Alma 16:47

This poetic device divides a subject into two parts. For example, the expression "heaven and earth" means "all creation" (Huey 1983:123) and "sea and dry land" mean "the universe." The two parts joined together represent the whole unit (Watson 1984:323).

Old Testament
The sea is his, and he made it;
And his hands formed the dry land.         Psalm 95:5
Book of Mormon
Behold, I am Jesus Christ, the son of God.
I created the heavens and the earth,
    and all things that in them are.         3 Nephi 4:44

Rhetorical Questions
According to Watson:

A rhetorical question is basically the posing of a question which requires no answer since either the speaker or the listener (or even both of them) already know the answer... The device is common to literature in most languages (Watson 1984:338).

Since Hebrew poetry is largely composed in parallel lines, rhetorical questions often appear in pairs. There is a tendency for them to occur in "clusters or series" as in "Job 38 which is almost entirely made up of this device." These questions are used for a "dramatic effect"-"to command the audience's attention," as an "emphatic negation (or assertion)," to open or close a stanza and as a "motivation ... to good conduct" after an exhortation. Most Old Testament books have rhetorical questions in them (Watson 1984:340-342).

Old Testament
Hath this been in your days?
Or even in the days of your fathers?
        Joel 1:2
Book of Mormon
How is it that ye have not hearkened unto the word of
    the Lord?
How is it that ye have forgotten that ye have seen an
    angel of the Lord?
Yea, and how is it that ye have forgotten how great things
    the Lord hath done for us in delivering us out of the
    hands of Laban, and also that we should obtain
    the record?
Yea, and how is it that ye have forgotten that the Lord is
    able to do all things according to his will for the
    children of men ...         1 Nephi 2:15-18

Examples of poetic techniques and verse patterns are given in Part II of this article, see Recent Book of Mormon Developments vol. 2, p. 21-26

To understand the Book of Mormon's message more clearly and to appreciate the beauty of its ancient literary style, it must be viewed in relation to its poetic structure.

Nephi tells us in First Nephi 1:1 that he is writing "in the language of my father which consists of the learning of the Jews and the language of the Egyptians." No doubt the learning of the Jews refers in part to the Hebraic language style in which the Book of Mormon is cast, which was well known to them and a product of the cultural heritage of the ancient Near Eastern countries.

When the Book of Mormon was published in 1830 the study of Hebrew poetry was still in its infancy. It took many more years for scholars to identify through the translation of other Semitic languages the various kinds of poetry we have classified today.

It wasn't until 1984 that much of the current poetic scholarship was neatly packaged in a textbook entitled Classical Hebrew Poetry (Watson 1984). With this book a giant step was made towards a comprehensive presentation of Classical Hebrew Poetry. This article presents the classification system of that source. In the future, no doubt, other scholars will bring more supporting evidences in the rapidly expanding field of Biblical poetry.

This is a day to recognize the Book of Mormon as an ancient literary masterpiece. For years its structure was masked, and we did not understand its artistic Hebraic achievement. Today we can see more clearly its rich Semitic heritage and how God can unveil it as an authentic Hebrew document to his ancient covenant people.
Mormon spoke to us of how this would come about:

Now these things are written unto the remnant of the
    house of Jacob: ...
And they are to be hid up unto the Lord that they may
    come forth in his own due time ...
And behold they shall go unto the unbelieving of the
And for this intent shall they go:
That they may be persuaded that Jesus is the Christ, the
    Son of the living God;
That the Father may bring about, through his most
His great and eternal purpose in the restoring the Jews,
    or all the house of Israel,
To the land of their inheritance which the Lord their God
    hath given them,
Unto the fulfilling of his covenant.         Mormon 2:39,41-42

This article taken from Recent Book of Mormon Developments vol. 2 p. 12-20

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Freedman, David Noel
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Gevirtz, Stanley
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Gottswald, N. K.
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    edited by George Arthur Buttrick and Emory Stevens Bucke,
    p. 833. Abingdon Press, Nashville.
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    edited by Geofrey W. Bromiley, p. 891.
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Schokel, Luis Alonso
 1988   A Manual of Hebrew Poetics.
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Watson, Wilfred, G. E.
  1984   Classical Hebrew Poetry.
    JSCIT Press, Sheffield, Great Britain.
Watters, William R.
  1976   Formula Criticism and the Poetry of the Old Testament.
    Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
Welch, John W. (editor)
  1981   Chiasmus in Antiquity.
    Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim, Germany.
Willis, John T.
  1987  Alternating (ABA'B') Parallelism in the Old
    Testament Psalms and Prophetic Literature.
    In Directions in Biblical Hebrew Poetry,
    edited by Elaine R. Follis, pp. 49, 71. JSCIT Press, Sheffield, Great Britain.